where filter specifies a set of logical conditions to match, similar to a WHERE clause in a SQL query.
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REST API

In the first form below, the condition is equivalence, that is, it tests whether property equals value. The second form below is for all other conditions.

filter[where][property]=value
filter[where][property][op]=value

For example, if there is a cars model with an odo property, the following query finds instances where the odo is greater than 5000:

/cars?filter[where][odo][gt]=5000

For example, here is a query to find cars with odo is less than 30,000:

/cars?filter[where][odo][lt]=30000

You can also use stringified JSON format in a REST query.

Filter limit

There are two ways to work around the filter limit:

  • Encode the large filter object as “stringified JSON.”
  • Override the limit manually in server/server.js, before boot is called.

Encode filter object as JSON

http://localhost:3000/api/Books
?filter={"where":{"or":[{"id":1},{"id":2},...,{"id":20"},{"id":21}]}}

Override limit in server.js

// In `server/server.js`, before boot is called
var loopback = require('loopback');
var boot = require('loopback-boot');
var qs = require('qs');

var app = module.exports = loopback();
app.set('query parser', function(value, option) {
  return qs.parse(value, {arrayLimit: 500});
});

app.start = function() {
  ...

Node API

Where clause for queries

For query methods such as find(), findOrCreate(), or findOne(), use the first form below to test equivalence, that is, whether property equals value. Use the second form below for all other conditions.

{where: {property: value}} 
{where: {property: {op: value}}}

Where:

  • property is the name of a property (field) in the model being queried.
  • value is a literal value. 
  • op is one of the operators listed below.
Cars.find({where: {carClass:'fullsize'}});

The equivalent REST query would be:

/api/cars?filter[where][carClass]=fullsize

Where clause for other methods

In the first form below, the condition is equivalence, that is, it tests whether property equals value. The second form is for all other conditions.

{property: value}
{property: {op: value}}

Where:

  • property is the name of a property (field) in the model being queried.
  • value is a literal value. 
  • op is one of the operators listed below.

For example, below shows a where clause in a call to a model’s updateAll() method. Note the lack of { where : ... } in the argument.

var myModel = req.app.models.Thing;
var theId = 12;
myModel.updateAll( {id: theId}, {regionId: null}, function(err, results) {
	return callback(err, results);
});

More examples, this time in a call to destroyAll():

var RoleMapping = app.models.RoleMapping;
RoleMapping.destroyAll( { principalId: userId }, function(err, obj) { ... } );

To delete all records where the cost property is greater than 100:

productModel.destroyAll({cost: {gt: 100}}, function(err, obj) { ... });

Default scopes with where filters

Adding a scope to a model definition (in the model.json file) automatically adds a method to model called defaultScope(). LoopBack will call this method whenever a model is created, updated, or queried.

Each time a model instance is created or updated, the generated defaultScope() method will modify the model’s properties matching the where filter to enforce the values specified.

If you don’t want to have the default scope applied in this way, use named scopes where possible.

If you must use a default scope, but don’t want it to affect upsert(), for example, simply override the model’s defaultScope() method prior to calling upsert().

For  example:

var defaultScope = Report.defaultScope;
  Report.defaultScope = function(){};
  Report.upsert({id: reportId, 'deleted': true}, function(...) {
    Report.defaultScope = defaultScope;
    ...
  });

Operators

This table describes the operators available in “where” filters. See Examples below.

Operator Description
= Equivalence. See examples below.
and Logical AND operator. See AND and OR operators and examples below.
or Logical OR operator. See AND and OR operators and examples below.
gt, gte Numerical greater than (>); greater than or equal (>=). Valid only for numerical and date values. See examples below.

For Geopoint values, the units are in miles by default. See Geopoint for more information.
lt, lte Numerical less than (<); less than or equal (<=). Valid only for numerical and date values.

For geolocation values, the units are in miles by default. See Geopoint for more information.
between True if the value is between the two specified values: greater than or equal to first value and less than or equal to second value. See examples below.

For geolocation values, the units are in miles by default. See Geopoint for more information.
inq, nin In / not in an array of values. See examples below.
near For geolocations, return the closest points, sorted in order of distance. Use with limit to return the n closest points. See examples below.
neq Not equal (!=)
like, nlike LIKE / NOT LIKE operators for use with regular expressions. The regular expression format depends on the backend data source. See examples below.
ilike, nilike ILIKE / NOT ILIKE operators for use with regular expressions. The regular expression format depends on the backend data source. See examples below.
regexp Regular expression. See examples below.

AND and OR operators

Use the AND and OR operators to create compound logical filters based on simple where filter conditions, using the following syntax.

Node API

{where: {<and|or>: [condition1, condition2, ...]}}

REST

[where][<and|or>][0]condition1&[where][<and|or>]condition2...

Where condition1 and condition2 are a filter conditions.

See examples below.

Regular expressions

You can use regular expressions in a where filter, with the following syntax. You can use a regular expression in a where clause for updates and deletes, as well as queries.

Essentially, regexp is just like an operator in which you provide a regular expression value as the comparison value.

Node API

{where: {property: {regexp: <expression>}}}

Where <expression> can be a:

  • String defining a regular expression (for example, '^foo' ).
  • Regular expression literal (for example, /^foo/ ).
  • Regular expression object (for example, new RegExp(/John/)).

Or, in a simpler format:

{where: {property: <expression>}}}

Where <expression> can be a:

  • Regular expression literal (for example, /^foo/ ).
  • Regular expression object (for example, new RegExp(/John/)).

For more information on JavaScript regular expressions, see Regular Expressions (Mozilla Developer Network).

For example, this query returns all cars for which the model starts with a capital “T”:

Cars.find( {"where": {"model": {"regexp": "^T"}}} );

Or, using the simplified form:

Cars.find( {"where": {"model": /^T/} } );

REST

filter[where][property][regexp]=expression

Where:

A regular expression value can also include one or more flags. For example, append /i to the regular expression to perform a case-insensitive match.

The following REST query returns all cars for which the model starts with a capital “T”::

/api/cars?filter[where][model][regexp]=^T

The following REST query returns all models that start with either an uppercase “T” or lowercase “t”:

/api/cars?filter[where][model][regexp]=/^t/i

Note that since the regular expression includes a flag, it is preceded by a slash (/).

Examples

Equivalence

Weapons with name M1911:

REST

/weapons?filter[where][name]=M1911

Cars where carClass is “fullsize”:

REST

/api/cars?filter[where][carClass]=fullsize

Equivalently, in Node:

Cars.find({ where: {carClass:'fullsize'} });

gt and lt

ONE_MONTH = 30 * 24 * 60 * 60 * 1000;  // Month in milliseconds
transaction.find({
      where: {
        userId: user.id,
        time: {gt: Date.now() - ONE_MONTH}
      }
    }

For example, the following query returns all instances of the employee model using a where filter that specifies a date property after (greater than) the specified date: 

/employees?filter[where][date][gt]=2014-04-01T18:30:00.000Z

The same query using the Node API:

Employees.find({
  where: { 
    date: {gt: new Date('2014-04-01T18:30:00.000Z')}
  }
});

The top three weapons with a range over 900 meters:

/weapons?filter[where][effectiveRange][gt]=900&filter[limit]=3

Weapons with audibleRange less than 10:

/weapons?filter[where][audibleRange][lt]=10

and / or

The following code is an example of using the “and” operator to find posts where the title is “My Post” and content is “Hello”.

Post.find({where: {and: [{title: 'My Post'}, {content: 'Hello'}]}}, 
          function (err, posts) {
            ...
});

Equivalent in REST:

?filter[where][and][0][title]=My%20Post&filter[where][and][1][content]=Hello

Example using the “or” operator to finds posts that either have title of “My Post” or content of “Hello”.

Post.find({where: {or: [{title: 'My Post'}, {content: 'Hello'}]}}, 
          function (err, posts) {
            ...
});

More complex example. The following expresses (field1= foo and field2=bar) OR field1=morefoo:

{
   or: [
     { and: [{ field1: 'foo' }, { field2: 'bar' }] },
     { field1: 'morefoo' }
   ]
 }

between

Example of between operator:

filter[where][price][between][0]=0&filter[where][price][between][1]=7

In Node API:

Shirts.find({where: {size: {between: [0,7]}}}, function (err, posts) { ... } )

near

The where.<field>.near filter is different from other where filters: most where filters limitthe number of records returned, whereas near orders them, making it more like a SQL order by clause. By combining it with limit, you can create a query to get, for example, the three records nearest to a given location.

For example:

/locations?filter[where][geo][near]=153.536,-28.1&filter[limit]=3

GeoPoints can be expressed in any of the following ways:

location = new GeoPoint({lat: 42.266271, lng: -72.6700016}); // GeoPoint
location = '42.266271,-72.6700016';                          // String
location = [42.266271, -72.6700016];                         // Array
location = {lat: 42.266271, lng: -72.6700016};               // Object Literal

Restaurants.find({where: {geo: {near: location }}}, function callback(...

near (ordering and limiting by distance)

The near filter can take two additional properties:

  • maxDistance
  • unit

When maxDistance is included in the filter, near behaves more like a typical where filter, limiting results to those within a given distance to a location. By default, maxDistance measures distance in miles.

Example of finding the all restaurants within two miles of a given GeoPoint:

var userLocation = new GeoPoint({
  lat: 42.266271,
  lng: -72.6700016
});
var resultsPromise = Restaurants.find({
  where: {
    location: {
      near: userLocation,
      maxDistance: 2
    }
  }
});

To change the units of measurement, specify unit property to one of the following:

  • kilometers
  • meters
  • miles
  • feet
  • radians
  • degrees

For example, to change the query above to use kilometers instead of miles:

var resultsPromise = Restaurants.find({
  where: {
    location: {
      near: userLocation,
      maxDistance: 2,
      unit: 'kilometers'
    }
  }
});

like and nlike

The like and nlike (not like) operators enable you to match SQL regular expressions. The regular expression format depends on the backend data source.

Example of like operator:

Post.find({where: {title: {like: 'M.-st'}}}, function (err, posts) { ... });

Example of nlike operator:

Post.find({where: {title: {nlike: 'M.-XY'}}}, function (err, posts) {

When using the memory connector:

User.find({where: {name: {like: '%St%'}}}, function (err, posts) { ... });
User.find({where: {name: {nlike: 'M%XY'}}}, function (err, posts) { ... });

ilike and nilike

The ilike and nilike (not ilike) operators enable you to match case insensitive SQL regular expressions. The regular expression format depends on the backend data source.

Example of ilike operator:

Post.find({where: {title: {ilike: 'm.-st'}}}, function (err, posts) { ... });

Example of nilike operator:

Post.find({where: {title: {nilike: 'm.-xy'}}}, function (err, posts) {

When using the memory connector:

User.find({where: {name: {ilike: '%st%'}}}, function (err, posts) { ... });
User.find({where: {name: {nilike: 's%xy'}}}, function (err, posts) { ... });

inq

The inq operator checks whether the value of the specified property matches any of the values provided in an array. The general syntax is:

{where: { property: { inq: [val1, val2, ...]}}}

Where:

  • property is the name of a property (field) in the model being queried.
  • val1, val2, and so on, are literal values in an array.

Example of inq operator:

Posts.find({where: {id: {inq: [123, 234]}}}, 
  function (err, p){... });

REST:

/medias?filter[where][keywords][inq]=foo&filter[where][keywords][inq]=bar

Or 

?filter={"where": {"keywords": {"inq": ["foo", "bar"]}}}