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LoopBack supports polymorphic relations in which a model can belong to more than one other model, on a single association.

The examples below use the following example models: Delivery, Letter, Parcel, where a Delivery may contain a Deliverable - either a Letter or a Parcel.

Model definition

We first define Deliverables:

class Deliverable extends Entity {

class Letter extends Deliverable {

class Parcel extends Deliverable {

The relation between the Delivery and Deliverables is: Delivery hasOne Deliverable; the relation is polymorphic.

class Delivery extends Entity {
@hasOne(() => Deliverable, {polymorphic: true})
  deliverable: Deliverable;

deliverableType: string;

A customized discriminator can be specified. The discriminator parameter specifies the name of a field in the model indicating the actual type of the Deliverable.

class Delivery extends Entity {
@hasOne(() => Deliverable, {polymorphic: {discriminator: "deliverable_type"}})
  deliverable: Deliverable;

deliverable_type: string;

Setting up repository

The only difference on the repository class is that instead of having a single repository getter, a dictionary of subclass repository getters is passed into the repository factory creator.

export class DeliveryRepository extends DefaultCrudRepository {
  public readonly deliverable: HasOneRepositoryFactory<Deliverable, typeof>;

    dataSource: juggler.DataSource,
    protected letterRepositoryGetter: Getter<EntityCrudRepository<Deliverable, typeof, DeliverableRelations>>,
    protected parcelRepositoryGetter: Getter<EntityCrudRepository<Deliverable, typeof, DeliverableRelations>>,
  ) {
    super(Delivery, dataSource);
    this.deliverable = this.createHasOneRepositoryFactoryFor(
      // use a dictionary of repoGetters instead of a single repoGetter instance
      {Letter: letterRepositoryGetter, Parcel: parcelRepositoryGetter},
    this.registerInclusionResolver('deliverable', this.deliverable.inclusionResolver);


The polymorphic relation supports queries with inclusions

const result = await deliveryRepo.findById(, {
  include: ['deliverable'],

The instances of polymorphic relations can be created through repository operations

.create(letter1Data, {polymorphicType: "Letter"});

belongsTo, hasMany, hasManyThrough relations

Polymorphic relation on belongsTo is similar to hasOne.

Polymorphic relation is not supported on hasMany relations. However, there is an easy workaround: having a hasMany relation on a non-polymorphic concrete type which hasOne polymorphic relation with an abstract polymorphic type. For example, Delivery hasMany DeliveryDeliverablePair and DeliveryDeliverablePair hasOne Deliverable.

The polymorphic relation on hasManyThrough relation is on the target model, not the through model. The discriminator is defined on the through model, and the target model is polymorphic.