Page Contents

The first step on the component migration journey is to reorganize the project files, change component’s entry point and documentation for adding the component to the target application.

LoopBack 3 component layout & mounting

A LB3 component is implemented as a function accepting the target app object and the configuration options.

A minimal component consists of a single index.js file with the following content:

module.exports = function initializeComponent(loopbackApplication, options) {
  // implementation
};

A component is typically added to a LB3 application by creating a new entry in server/component-config.json, see LoopBack components.

For example:

{
  "loopback-explorer": {
    "mountPath": "/explorer"
  }
}

This allows the component to receive configuration. App developers can provide environment-specific configuration by using component-config.{env}.json files.

LoopBack 4 layout

As explained in Creating components and Using components, a typical LoopBack 4 component is an npm package exporting a Component class.

The component class is usually implemented inside src/{component-name}.component.ts file, for example src/metrics.component.ts:

import {Application, Component, CoreBindings} from '@loopback/core';
import {bind, config, ContextTags, inject} from '@loopback/core';
import {MetricsBindings} from './keys';
import {DEFAULT_METRICS_OPTIONS, MetricsOptions} from './types';

@bind({tags: {[ContextTags.KEY]: MetricsBindings.COMPONENT}})
export class MetricsComponent implements Component {
  constructor(
    @inject(CoreBindings.APPLICATION_INSTANCE)
    private application: Application,
    @config()
    options: MetricsOptions = DEFAULT_METRICS_OPTIONS,
  ) {
    // ...
  }
  // ...
}

The code snippet above also shows how a LoopBack 4 component can receive configuration and the target application object.

Usage instructions

LoopBack 4 components are added to applications inside application constructor.

First, the application file needs to import the component class:

import {MetricsComponent} from '@loopback/extension-metrics';

Then in the constructor, add the component to your application:

this.component(MetricsComponent);

Finally, the application can configure the component by adding the following code to its constructor:

this.configure(MetricsBindings.COMPONENT).to({
  // the configuration
});

Migration steps

It is not feasible to migrate a LoopBack 3 component project to a LoopBack 4 component project in a series of incremental changes done within the same repository. We recommend to create a new project using lb4 extension CLI command and then incrementally migrate artifacts from the original LoopBack 3 component to the new project.